Non-Timber Forest Products Exchange Programme

Assessment of Policies on Non-Timber Forest Products – Country Study: Indonesia

October 12, 2020

Click here to download PDF

NTFP regulation in Indonesia is fragmented into numerous forestry legislation that compliment but also overlay each other. The forestry regulation and policies have primarily had an impact on NTFP development in relation to access or ownership of forest for NTFP collection, harvest, consumption, utilization, management, local trade and exports.

However, under Jokowi’s administration, an overarching paradigm shift has taken place in the forestry sector mainly a) a shift from timber management to integrated forest management or holistic management of landscapes and b) a shift from corporate approach to a more community approach with the main aim to improve equity in land and natural resources. The paradigm shift brought the acceleration of recognition of access and tenurial rights under the social forest and land reform (Tanah Objek Reforma Agraria, TORA) programs. Other regulations that provide access to communities to forest for NTFP harvest and trade includes MOUs that provide traditional zones within protected areas and eco-cultural zonation within forested APLs (areas for other uses). Further, forest partnerships between communities and companies within production forest enables communities to access NTFPs for harvest, utilization and trade and is a tool to address land conflicts. Bilateral MOUs with local Bupatis for conservation and the development of NTFP-based livelihoods for the local communities through low impact economic activities (i.e. NTFP harvesting and processing) has also been established.

Paramount to the sustainable management and conservation of forest and NTFPs for future generations is the Moratorium on the issuance of new concessions within primary natural forest and peat-lands in Forest Areas and APLs.

These various legislative instruments provide a conducive environment for NTFP development. However, the emphasis is on expediting the legalization process. Equal attention is needed for forest-based livelihood development, community-based conservation and incentives for ecosystem service initiatives.

Indigenous communities have long lived and thrived on NTFPs through its traditional knowledge and local wisdom in relation to the forest and natural landscapes. Hence, the Recognition and Protection of the Rights of Indigenous People (PPHMHA) Bill that was initiated and submitted to the House of Representatives in 2013 would have a positive impact on NTFP development in Indonesia. The bill is crucial as it covers two areas important to the recognition and self-determination of the indigenous peoples in Indonesia and subsequently the recognition of their local wisdom and traditional knowledge.

Finally, the available NTFP-specific legislation and policies can be summarized into the following:

a. Overview of the development of plans for the management and utilization of forests including NTFPs

b. Licensing for the collection of NTFPs in industrial plantation forest (Hutan Tanaman Industri, HTI)

c. Business workplans for the utilization of NTFPs within specific NTFP industrial plantation forest (i.e. sagu plantation forest). Hence, this would be relevant for domesticated or cultivated NTFPs.

d. Administration of NTFPs of national foreste. National strategy for the development of NTFPs 2009 (Based on strategies and policies from 2010 to 2014)

f. Other related regulation and policies that mainly are state financial facilities for the development of the forestry sector including NTFP development or non-tax revenues collected by the state.